Ground-mount racks are made of a mix of aluminum and steel poles, rails, and channel attached to ground-anchoring structures—working together to provide the strength to resist live loads (like wind and snow that exert variable uplift and downward pressure) and dead loads (the weight of the rack and modules). While it’s possible to scratch-build a ground-mount, it is rarely advisable. The engineering and testing that go into manufacturers’ designs take the guesswork out of ground-mounting a PV array, and the end result is likely to be cheaper, sturdier, longer-lasting, better engineered, and quicker to install than a homemade rack.
Ground-mounted PV modules are arranged in one or more rows, in either a landscape or portrait configuration. A common layout for larger arrays is two rows of modules in a portrait configuration, but smaller array layouts vary substantially, depending on the number of modules. Care should be taken when specifying a design to match the number of modules and series strings with the layout to ensure a symmetrical final product with the shortest possible cable and conduit routes.
The land required for a 1 MW power plant setup is around 4.5-5 acres for crystalline technology and around 6.5-7.5 acres for Thin-Film technology. This is only a rough benchmark and may vary based on technology and efficiency of panels.
The useful life of a typical Solar Power plant is considered to be 25 years. This is the duration for which long-term PPAs are signed and financial models are built. However, Solar Power plants can run beyond 25 years while producing a lower output. Many Solar Panel manufacturers guarantee an output of 90% at the end of 10 years and 80% at the end of 25 years.
The cost for O&M is Rs. 12 to 15 Lakhs/year/MW with a 6 to 8 % increase every year. This varies from project to project based on the number of people you employ for maintenance, frequency of cleaning of panels, onsite-engineer availability etc..
This depends on the mode of sale of power and the consumer of power. In the case of sale of power to DISCOM, the prevailing Average Pooled Power Purchase Cost (APPC) will be applicable. In the case of sale of power to 3rd Party consumer, a mutually agreed price can be agreed upon and accordingly a PPA can be signed. It is to be kept in mind that several additional charges such as Wheeling Charges, Distribution Charges, Open-Access Charges, Cross-Subsidy Charges are applicable in the case of sale of power to 3rd party. These charges vary from State-to-State and DISCOM-to-DISCOM.
A photovoltaic cell is a specialized semiconductor diode that converts visible light into direct current. Photovoltaic cells are becoming increasingly important as alternative sources of utility power. Large sets of PV cells can be connected together to form solar modules, arrays, or panels. The use of PV cells and batteries for the generation of usable electrical energy is known as photovoltaic. Once a photovoltaic system has been installed, it can provide energy at essentially no cost for years, and with minimal maintenance.
There are two basic types of semiconductor material, called positive and negative. In a PV cell, flat pieces of these materials are placed together, and the physical boundary between them is called the P-N junction. The device is constructed in such a way that the junction can be exposed to visible light. When such radiation strikes the P-N junction, a voltage difference is produced between the P type and N type materials. Electrodes connected to the semiconductor layers allow current to be drawn from the device.